The union membership rate (the percentage of wage and salary workers who were members of unions) was 10.3% in 2019, compared with 13.4% in 2000. In 2019, the union membership in private industry ranged from 2.2% or lower in professional and business services; accommodation and food services; agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting; and finance and insurance. Union membership rates were above 14.0% in telecommunications; transportation and warehousing; and utilities.
Union membership rates were 39.4% in local government, 29.4% in state government, and 25.6% in federal government in 2019.
The union membership rate in manufacturing has declined from 14.9% in 2000 to 8.6% in 2019. Over the same period, the rate in mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction declined from 11.3% to 4.0%. In publishing, except internet, the union membership rate was 8.0% in 2000 and 3.3% in 2019.